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Academic Motivation of University Students and Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals as Predictors

Maryum Firdous | Dr Rabia Riaz |
University of Karachi |
Volume: 2 | Issue : 2 (2023/12/01)


Problem statement: Academic motivation is of autonomous nature when it originates from within, and of controlled nature when it originates from external factors. Amotivation is the absence of motivation. Intrinsic and extrinsic goals are said to induce different kind of academic motivation in students of developed and developing countries. It is, therefore, important to explore autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation of university students and the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on academic motivation in developing societies like Pakistan.

Methodology: The data was collected from 238 male and female students, aged 18-32 (M=20.68, SD= 2.127) at a large university in Karachi through a demographic form, Academic Motivation scale and Aspiration Index.

Results: Repeated measures ANOVA test revealed that students’ autonomous and controlled motivation were significantly higher than their amotivation F(1.818, 430.871) = 1.738, p < .01, η² = .880. Multiple linear regression tests showed that autonomous motivation was predicted by intrinsic goals (β=.293, t= 4.042, p<.01) and extrinsic  goals (β=.144, t= 1.984, p<.05). Controlled motivation was predicted by extrinsic goals (β=.362, t= 4.978, p<.01). Further amotivation was predicted by intrinsic goals (β=-.277, t= -3.671, p<.01) and extrinsic goals (β=.324, t= 4.302, p<.01).

Recommendations: Studies in the future should explore the links of academic motivation with the kinds of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Motivation profiles of students from various disciplines should be maintained in the future. Gender differences in motivation could also be explored.

Keywords: autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, amotivation, intrinsic goals, extrinsic goals