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Problems and Challenges Faced by Non-Muslim Students in achieving Higher Education at universities of Pakistan: An Evaluative Study

Dr. Kamal Haider | Dr. Nazir Ahmad | Dr. Zahid Ali |
University of Arts | Science & Technology | American International Theism University |
Volume: 3 | Issue : 1 (2024/03/10)


Introduction: This study examines Pakistani non-Muslim university students' challenges and how they affect their self-esteem. Understanding non-Muslim students' challenges is essential for inclusiveness and a supportive learning environment in increasingly diverse schools.

Methodology: This quantitative study surveyed Pakistani non-Muslim university students about their opinions. Curriculum and Literature, Peer and Teacher Views, Rights of Religious Minorities, Inclusive Teaching Skills Techniques, and Student Self-Esteem (CARIS) was a self-created survey tool to assess students' experiences and views 91 male and 61 female non-Muslim students from 46 public and 106 private Pakistani universities were purposefully selected. SPSS 22 was used for descriptive analysis and Smart-PLS 3.9 for SEM analysis.

Results/Findings: All four hypotheses greatly increased non-Muslim pupils' self-esteem. Results showed that students had
strong opinions on curriculum, literature, attitudes, and rights issues. Non-Muslim students' experiences were not significantly different by gender, institute type (public vs. private), or province. Age and program of study differed significantly among non-Muslim students.

Future Direction: This study emphasizes the need for specific interventions for Pakistani non-Muslim university students. Future studies should address academic content and literature concerns, improve peer-teacher interactions, and promote diversity in Pakistani universities. More in-depth mixed-method research is needed to understand non-Muslim students' educational experiences and requirements.