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Investigating the Syntactic Variation among Non-Native English ESL Learners of Khawaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology

Dr. Samina Sarwat | Shumaila | Waheed Shahzad | Syed Khuram Shahzad |
Institute of English Language and Literature | Khawaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology |
Volume: 3 | Issue : 1 (2024/02/27)


Introduction: This research investigates syntactic variation among non-native ESL learners with Urdu, Punjabi, and Saraiki language backgrounds, utilizing Howard Giles' Communicative Accommodation theory.

Methodology: Writing samples from 105 students at Khawaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology were analyzed for syntactic differences across various linguistic elements.

Results/Findings: Distinct patterns of syntactic variation emerged among language groups, with Urdu-speaking students showing heightened variation in Prepositions, Pluralization, Modal Verbs, Adjective Placement, and Code Switching. Punjabi-speaking students demonstrated increased variation in Subject-Verb Agreement, Verb Tense, Word Order, Pronunciation, Vocabulary, and Relative Clauses. Saraiki-speaking students displayed more variations in Idiomatic Expressions, Question Formation, Negation, and Conjunction.

Implication/Future Direction: The findings underscore the importance of considering mother tongue influence in ESL instruction. These variations are attributed to students' inadequate competence, insufficient training, and limited exposure to the target language. Further research should explore effective strategies to address syntactic variation in ESL classrooms.